The Role of Biofeedback and Neurofeedback in Migraine Treatment

The Role of Biofeedback and Neurofeedback in Migraine Treatment

Understanding Biofeedback and Neurofeedback

Biofeedback and neurofeedback are techniques used in the treatment of migraine attacks that focus on increasing an individual’s awareness and control over their bodily functions through monitoring and feedback.


Biofeedback involves the use of sensors to monitor physiological processes such as muscle tension, heart rate, and temperature. The information collected is then fed back to the patient in real-time, allowing them to learn how to manipulate their bodily responses to reduce or eliminate migraine symptoms. For example, if muscle tension is identified as a trigger, the patient can learn techniques to relax their muscles and prevent a migraine attack.


Neurofeedback focuses on monitoring and regulating brainwave activity. It uses an electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure brainwave patterns and provides visual or auditory feedback to help patients gain control over their brain activity. By observing the changes in their brainwave patterns, patients can learn to self-regulate and modify neural activity, potentially reducing the frequency and severity of migraine attacks.

Benefits of Biofeedback and Neurofeedback for Migraine Treatment

Reduced Reliance on Medication

Many individuals with migraine attacks rely heavily on medication for relief. However, overuse of certain medications can lead to medication overuse headaches, making the migraine attacks worse. Biofeedback and neurofeedback offer an alternative approach to managing migraine attacks without medication dependence. By learning to control and reduce the frequency of migraine attacks through these techniques, individuals can decrease their reliance on medication and reduce the risk of medication overuse headaches.

Increased Control over Migraine Attacks

Biofeedback and neurofeedback empower individuals with migraine attacks to actively participate in their treatment and gain control over their symptoms. By monitoring their bodily responses and receiving real-time feedback, patients can identify triggers and learn techniques to prevent or reduce the intensity of migraine attacks. This increased sense of control can significantly improve their quality of life and reduce the impact of migraine attacks on daily functioning.

Improved Overall Well-being

Migraine Attacks often come with accompanying stress, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. Biofeedback and neurofeedback have been shown to effectively reduce stress and anxiety levels when practiced regularly. By learning relaxation techniques, patients can alleviate the physical and emotional burden of migraine attacks, leading to an improvement in their overall well-being.

Techniques Used in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback for Migraine Treatment

EMG Biofeedback

EMG (electromyography) biofeedback focuses on monitoring and controlling muscle tension. This technique helps individuals identify and control the muscular tension that often accompanies migraine attacks. EMG sensors are placed on the muscles of the head, neck, or shoulders, and patients learn to recognize tension patterns and practice relaxation techniques to reduce muscle tension and prevent migraine attacks.

Thermal Biofeedback

Thermal biofeedback involves monitoring skin temperature and blood flow as indicators of vascular changes associated with migraine attacks. Patients are taught to regulate their body temperature, which can help prevent vasodilation and the resulting migraine attacks. Thermal sensors are placed on the fingers, hands, or forehead, and patients receive feedback on temperature changes. Through practice, patients can learn to manipulate their body temperature to minimize migraine triggers.

EEG Neurofeedback

EEG neurofeedback focuses on monitoring brainwave patterns and providing feedback to promote self-regulation. Patients are trained to recognize and modify abnormal brainwave activity associated with migraine attacks. By visualizing their brainwave patterns, they can learn to increase or decrease specific frequencies, potentially reducing the occurrence and severity of migraine attacks.

Evidence and Research Supporting the Effectiveness of Biofeedback and Neurofeedback for Migraine Attacks

Multiple studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of biofeedback and neurofeedback in the treatment of migraine attacks. Research has shown positive outcomes in terms of reducing the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraine attacks, as well as improving overall symptom management and quality of life. Compared to other migraine treatment options, biofeedback and neurofeedback offer a non-invasive and drug-free approach that targets the root causes of migraine attacks. However, it is important to note that these techniques require consistent practice and commitment to achieve optimal results.

Integration of Biofeedback and Neurofeedback into Migraine Treatment Plans

Collaborative Approach with Healthcare Providers

Biofeedback and neurofeedback should be incorporated into migraine treatment plans under the guidance of healthcare professionals. Medical professionals play a crucial role in prescribing and monitoring patients’ progress with these techniques. Open communication and ongoing feedback between patients and healthcare providers are essential for evaluating the effectiveness of biofeedback and neurofeedback and making any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Development of Personalized Treatment Plans

Each individual experiencing migraine attacks has unique triggers, symptoms, and needs. Biofeedback and neurofeedback can be tailored to address these individual factors and complement other aspects of treatment, such as medication management and lifestyle changes. Personalized treatment plans may involve a combination of techniques, and healthcare providers work closely with patients to develop the most effective approach for their specific situation.

Practical Tips and Strategies for Incorporating Biofeedback and Neurofeedback into Daily Routines

  • Establish a Regular Practice Schedule: Consistency is key for biofeedback and neurofeedback to be effective. Setting aside dedicated time each day or week for practicing these techniques can help patients establish a routine and maximize their benefits.
  • Set Realistic Goals and Expectations: Progress with biofeedback and neurofeedback may take time. It is important to set realistic expectations and celebrate small victories along the way.
  • Utilize Technological Advancements and Mobile Applications: There are various technological advancements and mobile applications available that can assist individuals in practicing biofeedback and neurofeedback techniques. These tools can enhance the learning experience and provide additional support and guidance.


Biofeedback and neurofeedback offer promising options for the treatment of migraine attacks. These techniques provide individuals with migraine attacks the opportunity to better understand and control their bodily functions, reduce reliance on medication, increase control over migraine attacks, and improve overall well-being. By collaborating with healthcare professionals, developing personalized treatment plans, and incorporating practical tips for daily practice, individuals can integrate biofeedback and neurofeedback into their migraine management journey and ultimately achieve a better quality of life.

Jenny from Migraine Buddy

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