Migraine and the Gut-Brain Connection: Probiotic Strategies

Migraine and the Gut-Brain Connection: Probiotic Strategies

Introducing the Gut-Brain Connection

The gut-brain connection refers to the bidirectional communication system between the gut and the brain. The gut, also known as the gastrointestinal tract, houses a complex ecosystem of microorganisms called the microbiome. This microbiome plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health, including the regulation of brain function and emotions.

For example, the gut produces neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are also found in the brain and are associated with mood regulation. This highlights the influence of the gut on our mental well-being.

The Impact of the Gut on Migraine Attacks

Emerging research suggests a significant link between gut health and migraine attacks. Studies have shown that individuals with migraine attacks often have alterations in their gut microbiome, including an imbalance of beneficial and harmful bacteria.

One study found that individuals with migraine attacks had lower levels of certain beneficial bacteria, such as Prevotella and Actinobacteria, compared to those without migraine attacks. This imbalance in gut bacteria has been associated with increased susceptibility to migraine attacks.

Inflammation is another factor that plays a role in both gut issues and migraine attacks. Chronic low-grade inflammation in the gut can activate the trigeminal nerve, the major pain pathway involved in migraine attacks. This activation can trigger migraine attacks.

For instance, research has shown that people with migraine attacks have higher levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein, in their blood. This inflammatory response may be initiated by gut dysfunction and contribute to the onset of migraine attacks.

Probiotics as a Potential Migraine Management Tool

Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer health benefits to the host. These beneficial bacteria can help restore and maintain a healthy gut microbiome, potentially reducing inflammation and improving gut function.

Research studies have explored the effectiveness of probiotics in managing migraine attacks. One study found that a specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the frequency and severity of migraine attacks in participants. Another study showed that Bifidobacterium longum supplementation led to a significant reduction in migraine frequency.

For example, a randomized controlled trial involving individuals with migraine attacks found that those who received Lactobacillus acidophilus for 12 weeks experienced a significant decrease in the number of monthly migraine attacks compared to the placebo group. This suggests that probiotics can have a beneficial impact on migraine management.

Identifying the Right Probiotic Strains for Migraine Management

While Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum have shown promise in managing migraine attacks, other probiotic strains may also be beneficial:

  • Lactobacillus plantarum: This strain has anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce migraine triggers associated with inflammation. It has also been shown to enhance the gut barrier function, reducing gut permeability and preventing the entry of harmful substances into the bloodstream.
  • Bifidobacterium infantis: Known for its role in gut health, Bifidobacterium infantis may contribute to a healthier gut-brain axis. It has been shown to modulate the immune response and reduce gut inflammation.
  • Streptococcus thermophilus: This strain produces lactic acid, which may help maintain a healthy gut environment. It has been shown to improve gut symptoms, such as bloating and abdominal pain, in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome, which may have positive effects on migraine management.

Incorporating Probiotics into Your Migraine Management Routine

When incorporating probiotics into your migraine management routine, it is important to choose high-quality supplements. Look for products that contain the specific strains mentioned above and have undergone third-party testing for purity and potency.

Consistency and patience are key when taking probiotics. It may take several weeks or months to notice any significant improvements. It is also important to follow the recommended dosage instructions provided by the manufacturer or healthcare professional.

In addition to supplements, you can also incorporate probiotic-rich foods into your diet. These include fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi. However, it is important to note that the probiotic content in these foods may vary, and it may be challenging to consume sufficient amounts to reach therapeutic levels.

For example, you can try adding a serving of plain yogurt with live cultures to your daily breakfast or include fermented vegetables as a side dish with your lunch or dinner.

Lifestyle Factors for Optimal Gut and Migraine Health

Aside from probiotics, certain lifestyle factors play a crucial role in maintaining a healthy gut and managing migraine attacks. These include:

  • Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins supports gut health and can help reduce migraine triggers. Avoiding processed foods, added sugars, and alcohol can also be beneficial.
  • Stress management: Chronic stress can disrupt the gut-brain axis and trigger migraine attacks. Incorporating stress-reducing activities such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can help support gut and migraine health. For example, practicing mindfulness meditation for a few minutes each day can help reduce stress levels and promote gut-brain balance.
  • Regular exercise: Physical activity promotes healthy blood flow and circulation, which can help alleviate migraine attacks. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, on most days of the week. Engaging in aerobic exercise, such as swimming or cycling, can also have a positive impact on gut health and overall well-being.

Consultation with Healthcare Professionals

If you are considering incorporating probiotics into your migraine management routine, it is essential to consult with your healthcare provider. They can assess your individual needs and provide guidance on the most suitable probiotic strains and dosages for your condition.

A personalized treatment plan is crucial for managing migraine attacks effectively, as triggers and responses to treatments can vary significantly among individuals. Your healthcare provider can help tailor a comprehensive approach that combines probiotics with other therapies, such as medications or lifestyle modifications, to achieve optimal migraine management.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can probiotics cure migraine attacks?

No, probiotics cannot cure migraine attacks. However, they may help reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks by improving gut health and reducing inflammation.

2. Are probiotics safe to take?

Probiotics are generally safe for most individuals. However, individuals with compromised immune systems or serious underlying health conditions should consult with a healthcare professional before taking probiotics.

3. How long does it take for probiotics to work?

The time it takes for probiotics to work can vary from person to person. It may take several weeks or months to notice any significant improvements. Consistency and patience are key.

4. Can I get enough probiotics from food alone?

While probiotic-rich foods can contribute to your overall probiotic intake, it may be challenging to consume enough to reach therapeutic levels. Supplements can provide a more concentrated and reliable source of specific probiotic strains.

5. Can probiotics help with other types of headaches?

While probiotics have primarily been studied for migraine attacks, there is limited evidence suggesting they may have potential benefits for other types of headaches. More research is needed in this area.

6. Can I take probiotics with my migraine medications?

Probiotics are generally safe to take alongside most migraine medications. However, it is always best to consult with your healthcare provider to ensure there are no interactions or contraindications.

7. Can probiotics cause side effects?

Probiotics can cause mild digestive side effects, such as bloating or gas, in some individuals. These symptoms are usually temporary and subside as your body adjusts to the probiotics.

8. Should I continue taking probiotics even if I don’t notice immediate benefits?

Yes, even if you don’t notice immediate benefits, it is generally recommended to continue taking probiotics for an extended period to evaluate their long-term effects on your gut and migraine attacks.

9. Are there any precautions I should take when choosing probiotic supplements?

When choosing probiotic supplements, look for products that have undergone third-party testing for purity and potency. It is also important to follow the recommended dosage instructions provided by the manufacturer or healthcare professional.

10. Can children take probiotics for migraine attacks?

Probiotics are generally considered safe for children. However, it is best to consult with a pediatrician before giving probiotics to children for migraine attacks.


The gut-brain connection plays a significant role in migraine attacks, and probiotics offer a potential strategy for managing these debilitating headaches. By restoring a healthy gut microbiome, reducing inflammation, and improving gut function, probiotics may help reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. However, it is important to choose the right probiotic strains, maintain consistency, and incorporate other lifestyle factors for optimal gut and migraine health. Consultation with a healthcare professional is vital to develop an individualized treatment plan that addresses your unique needs.

Jenny from Migraine Buddy

You Will Also Like

Back to Blog

Leave your mobile to get a link to download the app